The below image was taken of the almost full moon on Monday 6th February 2012 in the UK at approximatly 9:30pm. The shot was taken using a Canon 40D and a Canon 55-250mm IS telephoto lens by one of our Manchester based photographers. Exposure info was: 1/640s, f/7.1, ISO200, and the lens was at full focal length of 250mm.
The above image is a 100% crop, but you can see that even with just a DSLR and a good telephoto lens you can get a lot of detail in your astrological photographs. You do not need to fork out on expensive telescopes and specialised connectors to then connect your camera body, or be into any kind of professional photography… just look up, point, and shoot!
(n.b. tripod advisable, but with the shutter speed above being 1/640 second you can actually take shots of the moon hand held!).